Jewelry Of Medieval Novgorod (10th-15th centuries): Bracelets

I recently finished reading and translating a chapter from Jewelry of Medieval Novgorod by M.V. Sedova, an overview of jewelry found in archeological digs around the medieval city. This chapter describes various types of bracelets that have been uncovered in Novgorod. Translations of other chapters can be found using the table of contents below.


Jewelry Of Medieval Novgorod (10th-15th centuries)

A translation of Седова, М.В. «Браслеты.» Ювелирные изделия древнего Новгорода (Х-XV вв.). Москва: Издательство «Наука», 1981, с. 93-121. / Sedova, M.V. “Braslety.” Juvelirnye izdelija drevnego Novgoroda (X-XV vv.). Moscow: Publishing House “Science,” 1981, pp. 93-121.

[Translation by John Beebe, known in the Society for Creative Anachronism as Master Ivan Matfeevich Rezansky, OL.]

[Translator’s notes: I’ve done my best to convey both the meaning and style from the original. Comments in square brackets and footnotes labeled “jeb” are my own. This document may contain specialized vocabulary related to embroidery, archeology, Eastern Orthodoxy, or Russian history; see this vocabulary list for assistance with some of these terms. This translation was done for my own personal education, and is provided here as a free resource for members of the Society for Creative Anachronism who may be interested in this topic but are unable to read Russian. I receive no compensation or income for this work. If you like this translation, please take a look at other translations I have made available on my blog.]

[The article in the original Russian can be found here: 
http://www.archaeology.ru/Download/Sedova/Sedova_1981_Iuvelirnye.pdf. ]

Table of Contents

Bracelets

These decorations, used by the Slavic and Finnish peoples of the Novgorod region since ancient times, were worn only by women. Judging by items found in burial mounds, bracelets were worn on both the left and right arms, sometimes both at the same time, and moreover several at a time, from one to seven.[1]Levashova, V.P. “Braslety.” Ocherki po istorii russkoj derevni X-XIII vv. Trudy GIM, issue 43. Moscow, 1967, p. 207. Bracelets are found in all layers, from the most ancient and pre-continental times to the upper extent of the cultural layers. Based on appearance, bracelets are divided into several types: round wire (or drawn wire) [krugloprovolochnyj (drotovyj)], spiral [vityj], pseudo-spiral [lozhnovityj], twisted [kruchenyj], wound around a rod [v vide sterzhnja s obmotkoj], braided [pletenyj] , cast hollow [lityj polyj], solid [massivnyj], flat [plastinchatyj], and folding [stvorchatyj].

Illustration 34: Round Wire (1, 2, 14), Spiral (3-5, 7-9, 12, 13) and Pseudo-Spiral (6, 10, 11, 15) Bracelets

Image 1 of 1

(1) 20/19-24-22; (2) 23-29-809; (3a) 23/22-26-311; (3b) 23-32-132; (4) 20/19-21-1878; (5a, 5b) 21-26-136; (6) 8/7-13-323; (7) 19-24-191; (8) Tikhv18-68; (9) 14-10-670; (10) 16-13-676; (11) 15-21-2119; (12) 10/9-15-169; (13) without provenance; (14) below level 28-1943; (15) 13-20-834

Round Wire Bracelets

Illustration 34, Item 1. The most ancient and simplest form in appearance and in method of production are open round wire bracelets, that is, made from a thick cast core which is oval or round in cross-section, which was then bent and forged while annealed.[2]Ryndina, N.V. “Tekhnologia proizvodstva Novgorodskikh juvelirov X-XV vv.” Materialy i issledovania po arkheologii SSSR. 1963 (117), p. 232.[3]jeb: See my translation of this article into English here: https://rezansky.com/2020/01/jewelry-production-technology-in-10th-15th-century-novgorod The ends of such bracelets were cut off either straight across or tapered. 26 such bracelets have been discovered, distributed in layers from the mid-10th to the early-14th centuries (below tier 28-915[4]jeb: If no illustration:item-number reference is given, as with all but one of the entries listed here, then the referenced item is not pictured in any of the illustrations.; 28-32-902; 26-29-1258; 25-1501; 24-26-1525; 21/20-25-1; 20-16-1731; 20/19-24-22 — Illus. 34:1; 20/19-21-885; 19-20-962; 19-17-1680; 18/17-17-987; 17-26-1392; 16/15-15-1666; 16/15-19-1546; 15-13-691; 15/14-21-1125; 14-22-1447; 11/10-13-1605; 10-18-1323; Il17-27-124; Tikhv18-41; Tikhv13-43; Mikh21/20-32-66; K29-27; Tr8-100).[5]jeb: See the introduction for a description of how to decipher these attribution numbers.

Such bracelets are known among the antiquities of all times and peoples; therefore, to speak of a chronological timeline for their existence is difficult. They were widely distributed across all of the territory of medieval Rus’ in monuments from the end of the 1st century BCE through the 14th century.

In Novgorod, these bracelets were created from different alloys in different time periods. For the 10th-first half of the 12th centuries, brass and gold-colored bronze were characteristic. After the mid-12th century, master craftsmen more commonly used tin, lead, or their alloys.

Illustration 34, Item 14. A bracelet with tapered ends, tetrahedral in cross-section. Found in a mid-10th century layer in the main pit (below tier 28-1943 — Illus. 34:14). Similar bracelets are characteristic of gravesites and treasure troves from the 10th-11th centuries among eastern Slavs. They are also found in the eastern Baltic, Finland, and Scandinavia, dated to the same time periods.

Illustration 34, Item 2. Bent-ended bracelets. Discovered as a set of four in layers from the 11th-early 12th centuries (25-29-267; 23-29-809 — Illus. 34:2; 21-20-502; 21/20-30-1336). They were made from forged wires[6]idem., p. 232. which were round, oval or rhomboid in cross-section. The ends of the rods were tapered and bent into a circle. Bent-ended bracelets were made of tin, lead, and their alloys. Analogous bracelets have been found amongst the materials from the Vladimir barrows, along the Dnieper River, and also among the burial mounds along the Ugra and Volga Rivers.[7]Levashova, “Braslety,” p. 215.

Spiral Bracelets

Spiral bracelets are a name for bracelets made from two or three wires which have been twisted together. Sometimes, they were additionally interlaced with filament. The ends of spiral bracelets come in various forms.

Illustration 34, items 3a, 3b. A trio of bracelets with looped ends. This was the most widely seen form. 40 such bracelets have been found in Novgorod in layers dating from the first quarter of the 11th century to the 1390s. Four examples have been found in the 11th century layers, 10 in the 12th century layers, 15 in the 13th century, and 11 in the 14th century (Il16-25-341; 23-32-132 — Illus. 34:3b; 23/22-26-311 — Illus. 34:3a; Il18/17-28-62; 21-23-858; 21/20-26-2128; Il16-26-39; 19-17-479; 19-26-2096; 18-20-1047; 18/17-23-1177A; 18/17-23-73; Il13/12-22-330; 17-14-686; 16/15-21-1193; 16/15-19-1552; 15-12-663; 15-20-1269; 14-11-707; 14-22-1331; 14-20-2108; 14/13-13-1090; 14/13-21-1350; 13-18-1277; Tikhv15-73; K24-17; 12-18-1369; 12-20-719; 12/11-10-1722; 11-16-279; 11-14-1582; 11-8-706; 11-15-307; Il8/7-16-22; 10/9-12-1035; 10/9-15-50; 9/8-11-1814; 8/7-15-800; 7-12-1115; 7-14-211).

Such bracelets were made from wires which were round in cross-section. The twisted wires were curved using an oval wooden mandrel in the shape of an arm, by forging it against the outer surface using a wooden mallet, and then the ends were flattened.[8]Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 228. The bracelet ends in a loop on one side, and a free straight end on the other. In 12 examples, the end is bent into the shape of a leaf. Bracelets of this type are encountered among the antiquities of all Eastern Slavic tribes, but are particularly common among the Novgorod Slavs, Krivichy and Vjatichi tribes. A.V. Artsikhovskij attributed these bracelets to the second stage of Vjatichi burial mounds, that is, to the 13th century, although 14th century examples also exist.[9]Artsikhovskij, A.V. Kurgany vjatichej. Moscow, 1930, pp. 10, 138. However, the Novgorod find of a trio of bracelets with petal-shaped endings in the 11th-12th century layers in multiple digs with consistent dendrochronology allows us to push the date of their appearance in Novgorod up to two centuries earlier.

Study of the 22 bracelets with petal-shaped ends showed that they were produced by local Novgorod artisans. Bracelets with the ends curved inward into a petal shape were primarily made of pure copper; bracelets ending directly into a leaf shape were made of various alloys.[10]Konovalov, “Tsvetnye metally…,” pp. 130-131.

Illustration 34, Item 7. Three-strand bracelets with cut-off ends. Made from segments of a bundle of three wires. The bracelet was flatted on an anvil using a metal hammer from above and below, then bent around a mandrel. To smooth the inner surface, a soft anvil was used. The final step was filing and polishing.[11]Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 228. 39 such bracelets have been found in Novgorod, in layers from the last third of the 11th century to the early 14th century (Il18/17-18-139; 21-26-93; Il16-26-284; 20-21-928; 19-16-693; 19-24-191 — Illus. 34:7; 18-24-2110; Il13/12-22-253; 17-17-1772; 17-19-1067; 17-19-1091; 16-18-1035; 16-21-1205; 15-21-2130; 15-19-1283; 15-16-1990; 15-14-966; 15-22-132; 15-22-737; layer 15 of Kozmodem’janskaja street; 15-21-2040; 15/14-21-1128b; 15/14-21-1121a — Illus. 39:4; 15/14-21-1125; 14-22-1414; 14/13-15-1802; 14/13-20-1129; 14/13-20-808; 13/12-15-1807; 12-18-1116; 11-17-1266; 11-19-843; Buja156). These bracelets were most widely used from the 1170s-1270s. Threefold bracelets with cut-off ends were widely distributed in the northwestern section of Novgorod’s territory, where over 300 have been found. They can be considered an ethnically defining sign of the Novgorod Slavs. In other locations (Belozero, Pskov, and in burial mounds in Kostroma and Vladimir), finds have been one-offs.[12]Levashova, “Braslety,” p. 220.

Spectrographic analysis of 27 bracelets of this type showed that 40% of them were made of tin bronze; 31% of multi-component alloys of group V[13]jeb: See the introduction for more information on alloys used in Novgorod finds.; 12.7% of brass; 8.5% of tin/lead bronze; and 4.2% of pure copper. In the 13th century, there were few items made of brass or multi-component alloys (group V), and 1/3 of all such production were three-strand bracelets with cut-off ends. According to a theory by A.A. Konovalov, bracelets of these alloys were not produced in Novgorod, but rather in the northwestern region of Novgorod’s territory, where they were also widely found. The bracelets found within the city, according to Konovalov, were lost by villagers while visiting Novgorod. 54.9% of bracelets were produced using alloys that were preferred by Novgorod artisans, and appear to have been produced locally.[14]Konovalov, “Tsvetnye metally…,” pp. 126-129.

Illustration 34, Items 4, 8. Twofold bracelets. Twisted from two rods or wires. They come in three variations. The first variation consists of bracelets which have a leaf-shape on one end, and on the other, a cut off stub. Seven such bracelets were chronologically distributed through layers from the early 12th century to the 1240s (20/19-21-1878 — Illus. 34:4; Mikh19-30-34; 18-24-1121a; K33-55; 16-12-659; 15-15-593; Il11/10-20-113).

The second variation includes two bracelets woven from two rods with flattened ends. They date from the very end of the 12th century through the 1240s (16-22-138; 15-14-576). Similar bracelets from the Maksimov burial mound were dated by A.A. Spitsyn to the 11th century.[15]Spitsyn, A.A. “Drevnosti basseijnov rek Oki i Kamy, vyp. 1.” Materialy po arkheologii Rossii. 1901 (25). Table XVII:8.

The third variation is represented by a pair of bracelets ending in curled castings. They were located in layers from the late 12th century – 1270s (Mikh18-28-61; Tikhv18-68 — Illus. 34:8).

Illustration 34, Item 9. Bracelets with tapering ends. Seven such bracelets have been found (18-23-147; 16-17-942; 16-17-942; 14-10-670 — Illus. 34:9; 14-11-1727; 14/13-14-1908; 10-6-1741). They were twisted from two (5 examples) or three (2 examples) rods, which were thicker in the middle and tapered towards the ends. Aside from the difference in the number of rods, these bracelets can be combined into a single set, since they are very similar externally, were created identically from a technology standpoint, and were found in contemporaneous strata. They were made from tin, lead, or from their alloys in the following manner: the rods were cast straight, then the ends were heated and stretched. The rods were then annealed and twisted, and finally, were bent around an arm-shaped mandrel.[16]Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 230. These bracelets date from the second half of the 12th century through the mid-14th century.

Illustration 34, Item 13. Bracelets with fused ends. The collection contains two examples; as a result, they are not precisely dated. One (with cast oval guards attached to the ends) was found on the outskirts of the Nerevskij dig. The other does not have an exact chronology (Rog24-41).

Illustration 34, Item 12. Four-strand bracelets (2×2). Made from round wire, folded over into four layers and twisted; as a result, one end has two leaves, and on the other, there is one leaf with the two ends of the wire inside. During production, the inner side was forged on a soft surface. In Novgorod, six such bracelets have been found, in layers from the mid-13th century through the mid-14th century (Ljud12-6; K22-19; 10/9-15-169 — Illus. 34:12; 9-13-1490; 8-11-380; K18-35). A.V. Artsikovskij attributed them to the second stage of Vjatichi burial mounds, dating to the 13th-14th centuries.[17]Artsikhovskij, Kurgany vjatichej, pp. 137-138.

Illustration 34, Item 5a,b. There is a lone quadruple twisted bracelet with rectangular slots for inserts on the end (21-26-136 — Illus. 34:5a-b). It was found in a layer at the turn of the 11th-12th centuries. Bracelets which were similar in form were produced in Suvar.[18]Khlebnikova, T.A. “Gorodische Suvar.” Arkheologicheskie otkrytija 1975 g. Moscow, 1976, p. 205.

Twisted 2×3 bracelets. These were made from doubled round bronze wire, folded over 3 times and twisted. A pair of these bracelets were found in layers from the 1340s-1380s (Il6/5-13-88; Torg19-16).

Illustration 35: Bracelets which are Twisted (1,2), Solid (3-5), or Wound around a Rod (6-12)

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(1) 20/19-17-490; (2) 16-18-881; (3) 24-31-762; (4) 23-25-882; (5) 15-20-1220; (6) Buja, without provenance; (7) Il10-19-120; (8) 12-19-722; (9) 14-16-1882; (10) 12-18-1136; (11) 21-22-1989; (12) 18-20-1890.

Pseudo-Spiral Bracelets

Pseudo-spiral bracelets are similar to spiral bracelets in appearance, but differ in method of production. They were either cast in a stone or detachable clay mold made from the impression of a spiral bracelet, or were cast using the lost wax method.[19]Ryndina, “Technologia proizvodstva…,” pp. 230-232. There are several variants of this type of bracelet.

Illustration 34, Item 11. The first variant is represented by 11 bracelets (28-33-124; 21-24-330; 21/20-23-319; 20-25-2157; 15-21-2119 — Illus. 34:11; 15/14-20-1240; K24-30; K25-76; 11/10-18-142; 7-14-1332; Tr6-94). These all have tapered ends. Such bracelets are found in all layers from the 11th-14th centuries.

Illustration 34, Item 10. The second variant is represented by a trio of bracelets (22-19-617; 17/16-16-1099; 16-13-676 — Illus. 34:10) with expanding, flat, triangular ends. These are dated in Novgorod to the late 11th-late 12th centuries. They are similar in form to a bracelet found in Kiev in the Church of the Tithes.[20]Korzukhina, G.F. Russkie klady. Moscow-Leningrad, 1954, Table XXXI:5 — trove 74 (1170s-1240).

Illustration 34, Item 15. This bracelet is distinguished by its technological features, created using a wax model, obtained by grafting together four wax rods (13-20-834 — Illus. 34:15). It is dated to the middle of the 13th century.

Illustration 34, Item 6. A unique bracelet with tapered ends, decorated with four ringlets. It was found in a layer from the second half of the 14th century (8/7-13-323 — Illus. 34:6). Metallurgic study of the bracelet showed that it was produced using casting methods, with the assistance of so-called wax-knitting. This technique was mostly widely used amongst Finno-Ugric jewelers, and can be attributed to the “miracle” antiquities.[21]jeb: A variety of archeological material related to the “chudo” (miracle) as a collective name for the Finnish tribes. See here for more info.

Twisted Bracelets

In twisted bracelets, the surface consists of alternating spiral protrusions and semicircular recesses that result from a rod that is triangular in cross-section.[22]Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 232. 24 bracelets have been found, amongst which there are three variations.

Illustration 35, Item 1. The first variation is represented by 19 bracelets with tapered ends. All of them were found in layers from the early 12th through the second half of the 13th centuries (20/19-17-490 — Illus. 35:1; 19/18-21-1027; 18-23-73; 17-16-1669; 16-23-2096; 16-17-1067; 16/15-17-1038; 15-17-881 — Illus. 37:6, Illus. 39:1; 15/14-21-194; 14-15-954; 14-20-190; 14-20-2126; 14/13-14-2002; 13-18-1287; 13-20-766; 13-17-289; 13/12-15-1815; 13/12-14-1807; Tr7-21). Six bracelets were found in the 12th century layers, and 13 in the 13th century layers.

Illustration 35, Item 2. The second variation is represented by one bracelet with flattened, oval ends. It was found in a layer from the turn of the 12th-13th centuries (16-18-881 — Illus. 35:2).

Bracelets of the third variation have one flattened, spirally-bent end. Three examples were chronologically distributed in layers from the second half of the 13th century through the middle of the 14th century (13-16-1831; Tikhv14-54; 10/9-13-1813).

The majority of the twisted bracelets (17) were made from tin, lead, and their alloys. All of the bracelets with spirally-bent ends (3) were made from bronze, as were four bracelets with tapered ends.

Similar twisted bracelets were quite widely distributed amongst antiquities of the Finno-Ugric tribes of the Baltic region, and have also been found in Scandinavia.[23]Du Chaillu. The Viking Age. Vol 1. London, 1889, p. 240, Table 508.

Bracelets Which Are Wound Around A Rod

This group is conditionally composed of bracelets which are composed of a rod, around which is wound a wire or metallic strip. In all, nine such bracelets have been discovered, distinguished from each other by their method of production and outward appearance. However, they existed around the same time, from the end of the 11th century through the second half of the 13th century.

Illustration 36, Item 2a,b. The oldest bracelet was found in a layer from the end of the 11th century (21-25-329 — Illus. 36:2a-b). It was made from a tin-lead alloy and consists of three round rods with ribbons of metal wound around them, and then entwined in a silver-plated thread. The oval guard at the end of the bracelet was achieved by forging the rods anew.[24]Ryndina, “Technologia proizvodstva…,” p. 230.

Illustration 35, Items 11, 12. From around the same time period (the turn of the 11th-12th centuries) comes another bracelet, made from a round rod, wrapped with round wire and with oval guards on the ends (21-22-1989 — Illus. 35:11). With its complicated pattern, this bracelet stands as an exemplar, found in layers from the mid-12th century (18-20-1890 — Illus. 35:12). The weaving consists of six twisted braids of doubled silver-plated wire (Illus. 35:12). Similar bracelets were found in treasure troves dated by G.F. Korzukhina to the 11th-early 12th centuries.[25]Korzukhina, Russkie klady, Table XIV:3.

Illustration 35, Items 8-10. Similar to this variation are two additional bracelets with tapered ends, found in a layer from the second quarter through the middle of the 13th century (15/14-15-1950; 14-16-1882 — Illus. 35:9). A bracelet with triangular shields on the ends (12-19-722 — Illus. 35:8) comes from the end of the 13th century. It was made from a tin-lead alloy by casting it as a straight bar with shields in a split stone mold. The bar was then wrapped with lead wire and bent around a mandrel.[26]Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 230. An additional bracelet with tapered ends (12-18-1136 — Illus. 35:10) dates to the late 13th century. Its round rod is wrapped with a band of tin-lead alloy, then entwined with silver-plated wire.

Illustration 35, Item 7. This bracelet is in the form of a round bronze rod with spirally twisted ends and a winding braid of chainmail over the central section (Il10-19-120 — Illus. 35:7). It dates to the mid 13th century. Two similar bracelets have been discovered in burial mounds from the Moscow region.[27]Levashova, Braslety, p. 229.

Illustration 35, Item 6. Apparently from the same time period comes a bronze bracelet with leaf-shaped ends and spirally wrapped with wire, found in 1967 in the Bujan dig. A similar technique of weaving is known amongst Baltic and Slavic antiquities.[28]Lietuviu liaudies menas. Vilnius, 1958, p. 580; Bulychov, N.I. Zhurnal raskopok po chasti vodorazdelov verkhnikh pritokov Volgi i Dnepra. Moscow, 1899, Table XVIII:10.

Illustration 36: Bracelets which are Braided (1, 3, 7-11), Wound around a Rod (2), and Hollow (4-6, 12)

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(1a, 1b) 5-9-1180; (2a, 2b) 21-25-329; (3) 23-26-381; (4) 4-9-321; (5) Ljud9-11; (6) 12-21-1397; (7) 15-21-146; (8a, 8b) Kozm16-9; (9a, 9b) 14-17-1613; (10) Tr10-92; (11a, 11b) 18-23-1214; (12) Tikhv14-28

Braided Bracelets

Braided bracelets are made in various manners by weaving several round wires. In the Novgorod collection, these bracelets are represented by a pair of types.

Illustration 36, Items 1a, 1b, 3. The first type includes bracelets woven from seven bronze or brass wires, the ends of which are either free or bent into loops. Two bracelets with free ends have been found; one in a layer from the second half of the 11th century (23-26-381 — Illus. 36:3), and the other in a layer from the mid-13th century. Three loop-ended bracelets were distributed amongst layers from the first quarter of the 13th century (Torg30-28), the first half of the 14th century (10-10-1076), and the beginning of the 15th century (5-9-1180 — Illus. 36:1a-b).

N.V. Ryndina’s notes on the technological creation of these bracelets are interesting. She writes that in order to create a bracelet with loops on one end “three long wires were used, twisted together in the center and then folded in half, forming a loop. Free ends were used when weaving a six-wire braid. During the braiding process, the loop was put onto a support, and another wire was attached to the harness.”[29]Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” pp. 232-233. Similar braided bracelets are known among both the Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes, for example the Vjatichi, Krivichi and Mordovians.[30]Artsikhovskij, Kurgany vjatichej, pp. 20-21.

Illustration 36, Items 7-11. The second type includes bracelets with flat oval shields on the ends. These shields have small perforations to unite the ends of the bracelet. The number of wires from which the bracelet is woven ranges from four to seven. These bracelets were made from soft lead-tin wires, the ends of which were forged. Such bracelets have been found in layers from the turn of the 11th-12th centuries to the end of the 13th century (21-23-1064; Il13/12-22-15; Mikh17-27-27; 15-21-146 — Illus. 36:7; 14-17-1613 — Illus. 36:9a-b; 13-21-1465; 12-10-671; 12/11-13-1928). In some cases, the wire base had molded, ornamental shields or shields with bezels for inserts soldered onto it. Such bracelets were found in layers from the second half of the 12th century to the early 13th century (18-23-1214 — Illus. 36:11a-b; Kozm16-9 — Illus. 36:8a-b; Kozm14-33; Tr10-92 — Illus. 36:10). Bracelets that are similar in form, but made of silver, have been found in Russian treasure troves which were buried around the turn of the 11th-12th centuries.[31]Korzukhina, Russkie klady, Table XIII:2; Table XIV:1. These were located as individual finds in burial mounds in the Vladimir, Moscow and Smolensk regions.[32]Levashova, Braslety, p. 228, Illus. 29:9.

Illustration 37: Bracelets which are Blunt-Ended and Flat (1, 4, 6, 7, 9-12, 15), Oval-Ended and Flat (2, 5, 8), With a Convex/Concave Curve in the Middle (13), with a Hook on the End (17), and Solid (3, 14, 16, 18-20)

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(1) 17-22-40; (2) 14-21-760; (3) 27-29-1067; (4) 13-17-1012; (5) 16/15-21-257; (6) 15-17-881; (7) 13-11-671; (8) 13-11-489; (9) 10-16-62; (10) 9/8-14-1269; (11) Tr4-98; (12) 14-13-588; (13) Tikhv13-40; (14) 12-18-233; (15) 17/16-17-1090; (16) 14-16-890; (17) 9-11-960; (18) 12-13-excavation XXX; (19) 20-20-2009; (20) 23-28-294

Cast, Hollow Bracelets, Decorated with Imitation Twist

Illustration 36, Items 4-6, 12; Illustration 43, Items 11, 13. This group contains 10 bracelets cast from tin-lead alloys in double-sided forms. They are hollow, but resemble bracelets which are woven or are in the form of a wrapped rod. They first appear in the first half of the 13th century, and are encountered as individual examples through the early 15th century (Tikhv14-23 — Illus. 36:12; 15/14-23-1399 — Illus. 43:13; 12-21-1397 — Illus. 36:6; 10/9-14-1204; 9/8-3-1721; 8-3-1757; 6-9-1546; 4-9-321 — Illus. 36:4). Two fragments of cast, hollow bracelets interestingly imitate bracelets braided with silver wire. They have ends in the form of animal heads. One of these was found in the Nerevskij dig (13/12-15-1834 — Illus. 43:11); the other was found in the Ljudogoschinskij dig (Ljud9-11 — Illus. 36:5), but both stratigraphically date to the end of the 13th century. All of these hollow bracelets were made by city artisans; they have not been found in burial mounds.

Illustration 38: Ornament on 10th-11th Century Bracelets

Image 1 of 1

(1) 24-31-762; (2) 23-28-294; (3) 23-25-882; (4) 20-20-2009; (5) 23-28-123; (6) 24-28-21; (7) 23-26-275; (8) Il25-27-103; (9) 18-1169; (10) 26-30-166; (11) 22/21-20-1670; (12) Mikh24-37-49; (13) Mikh22-34-33; (14) 25-27-1520; (15) 24-26-1477; (16) 24/23-26-1044

Narrow, Solid Bracelets

Illustration 35, Items 3-5; Illustration 37, Items 3, 19, 20; Illustration 38, Items 1-4, 12; Illustration 42, Item 1; Illustration 43, Item 17. This group includes bracelets which have a cross-sectional form in the shape of an oval, triangle or elongated hexagon. They were made by casting in a hard mold, followed by cold forging. These bracelets have open, slightly rounded ends. The decoration on them was created using stamps. In Novgorod, bracelets of this type were found in layers from the 10th-early 12th centuries. For example, one bracelet from the 10th century (27-29-1067 — Illus. 37:3) is decorated with a series of parallel lines interspersed with oblique crosses. Six bracelets were found in layers from the 11th century (24-31-762 — Illus. 35:3, Illus. 38:1; Mikh24-37-49 — Illus. 38:12; 23-28-294 — Illus. 37:20, Illus. 38:2; 23-25-882 — Illus. 35:4, Illus. 38:3; 22-24-866; 21-23-1975 — Illus. 43:17). Their decoration consists of a geometric woven pattern, rhombi, crosses, triangles, and oblique notches. Three bracelets date to the 12th century (20-20-2009 — Illus. 37:19, Illus. 38:4; 20/19-22-411; 18-20-1640). The first is decorated with a series of parallel lines, interspersed with a serpentine pattern. It may belong to a type of scaphoid bracelets, the form and decoration of which were borrowed from Scandinavia. Other narrow, solid bracelets are found in the antiquities of the Baltic region, which were widely distributed in the 11th-12th centuries in the south-eastern Baltic region, Finland, the north-western Novgorod region, and were also known in the Rostov-Suzdal’ lands.[33]Levashova, Braslety, p. 242; Selirand, J. Eestlaste matmiskombed varafeodaalasete suhete tärkamise perioodil. Tallin, 1974, Table XXXIX:3, 5, 7, 8; Shnjure, E.D., Zejda, T.Ja. Nukshinskij mogil’nik. Riga, 1957, Table V:3, Table VI:4; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1896 (20), Table IV:18, Table XIII:16, 26, 28; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXII:19. All of the Novgorod bracelets of this type were made from alloys in group IV and V, similar in recipe to the alloys used by jewelers of the entire Baltic region in the 10th-11th centuries. One solid cast bracelet was found in Novgorod in a layer from the first half of the 13th century (15-20-1220 — Illus. 35:5, Illus. 42:1). It is decorated with convex, transverse triple bands, between which are placed parallel zigzag lines.

Illustration 39: Ornament on Flat Bracelets, 12th-13th centuries

Image 1 of 1

(1) 15-17-881; (2) 14-15-1943; (3) 10-15-62; (4) 15/14-21-1121A; (5) 15-22-2136; (6) 16-22-2145; (7) 13-14-1800; (8) 13-16-1827; (9) 16-1169; (10) 17-22-40; (11) 15-20-1206; (12) Il16-21-135; (13) 13-11-761; (14) 13-19-2136; (15) 13-17-1012; (16) 14-13-984; (17) 9-12-1006

Flat Bracelets

Flat bracelets have a cross section in form of an elongated rectangle. They are 1-2 cm wide. They were usually made from thin, forged metal plate. They come in several types, organized by the shape of their ends.

Illustration 37, Items 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 15; Illustration 38, Items 7, 8, 10, 14-16; Illustration 39, Items 1-17; Illustration 40, Items 1-8, 16-18; Illustration 41, Items 1-3, 5; Illustration 42, Item 4. Blunt-ended bracelets.[34]V.P. Levashova calls these bracelets “narrow-ended” (Levashova, Braslety, p. 233). These are the most common type. Their ends are rounded, or sometimes cut square and always narrowed. The oldest are a smooth, unornamented bracelet found in layers from the 970s-980s (27-28-1815) and a bracelet with a pattern of oblique crosses (26-30-166 — Illus. 38:10).

In strata from the 11th century, 7 bracelets were found (25-27-1520 — Illus. 38:14; 24-26-1477 — Illus. 38:15; 24/23-26-1044 — Illus. 38:16; 23-26-275 — Illus. 38:7; Il25-27-103 — Illus. 38:8; 21-22-886; Mikh20-31-49).

15 bracelets were found in layers from the 12th century, with the largest part dating to the end of the 12th century or the turn of the 12th-13th centuries (Il24-81; 19-23-1261; 18-1169 — Illus. 38:9; 17-23-dig XV-XVI, section Zh — Illus. 40:2; 17-22-40 — Illus. 37:1, Illus. 39:10; 17/16-17-1090 — Illus. 37:15; 16-22-2145 — Illus. 39:6; 16-22-2108; 16-19-1630; 16-22-2136 — Illus. 39:5; 16-12-660; 16-21-1172 — Illus. 40:1; Mikh17-27-10 — Illus. 40:5; Il16-21-135 — Illus. 39:12; Ljud16-10-6 — Illus. 40:6).

In layers from the 13th century, 22 bracelets were found (15-14-1087; 15-17-881 — Illus. 37:6; 15-20-1206 — Illus. 39:11; 15/14-21-1121A; 14-15-1984; 14-15-1943 — Illus. 39:2; 14-13-984 — Illus. 39:16; 13-13-588; 14-22-775 — Illus. 40:4; 14-17-1834 — Illus. 40:16; 14-13-588 — Illus. 37:12; 14/13-20-1131 — Illus. 40:8; 14-16-1601; 14/13-16-910; 13-17-1012 — Illus. 37:4, Illus. 39:15; 13-16-1827 — Illus. 39:8; 13-11-671 — Illus. 37:7; 13-19-2136 — Illus. 39:14; 13-14-1800 — Illus. 39:7; 13/12-18-1209 — Illus. 42:4; 12-18-1224 — Illus. 40:3; 12/11-17).

Ten bracelets may be dated to the 14th century (11/10-15-1053; 10-17-1352 — Illus. 40:7; 10-16-62 — Illus. 37:9; 10/9-12-1017; 10/9-10-1899 — Illus. 41:3; 9-12-1006 — Illus. 39:17; 9/8-14-1269 — Illus. 37:10, Illus. 41:1; 8-16-123 — Illus. 41:5; 7-13-1355; Tr4-98 — Illus. 37:11).

In this way, blunt-ended bracelets were distributed in Novgorod across 4 centuries. Their form changed little. This is the most common form of bracelet across different peoples and different time periods. The only peculiarity of Novgorod blunt-ended bracelets is that they have weakly narrowed ends, that is, their width does not change much across the entire length of the bracelet. This was also characteristic of rural plate bracelets from the north-western region of the Novgorod lands. In Novgorod, only two bracelets (Il16/15-21-2191 — Illus. 40:17, and Il16-21-328 — Illus. 40:18), dating to the late 12th century through the 1230s, stand out for their appearance. They are 3.5-4 cm wide in the center, with sharply narrowed ends. Analogous bracelets are also found in materials from Novgorod burial mounds. A. A. Spitsyn dates them to the 13th century.[35]Materialy po arkheologii Rossii. 1896 (20), Table XIII:29, 32; 1903 (29), Table XXV:23.

Spectrographic analysis of this type of flat bracelet has shown that in the 10th and 11th centuries, they were all made from brass and multi-component alloys with a predominance of zinc (group V). In the 12th century, multi-component alloys still were in widespread use, but there also appeared a number of items made from tin bronze. In the 13th century, all bracelets were made from tin-lead and tin bronze. In the 14th century, a number of alloys of copper and zinc once again came into use.

Blunt-ended flat bracelets were decorated differently in different time periods. But, since the ornamentation changed on all types of flat bracelets with the same regularity, the nature of these changes will be discussed and the end of the description of all types of flat bracelets.

Illustration 38, Items 5, 11. Wide-ended solid cast bracelets. These come in two variants. In the first variant, the ends gradually widen and then are cut straight across. The bracelets themselves are flat or convex, 2.5-3.5 cm in width. Two of these bracelets have been found: one (23-28-123 — Illus. 38:5) in layers from the 1050s-1070s, and the other (18/17-17-1674) in layers from the 1160s-1190s. They were typically decorated with strong geometric weaving, horizontal lines, and vertical lines on the ends. These were applied using a punch, the working end of which was in the form of a three-sided pyramid.[36] Similar bracelets are widely seen in 10th-12th century finds from the Baltic region. They are well known among digs in Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and in burial mounds in the Ladoga region, the Izhorska plateau, and the Suzdal’ region.[36]Levashova, Braslety, p. 236; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1896(20), Table III:2; 1903(29), Table XXII:29; “Ljutsinskij mogil’nik. Materialy po arkheologii Rossii. 1893 (14), Table IX:5, 7, 8; Izvestija Arkheologicheskoj komissii, 1905 (15), Illus. 294, 298; Kivikoski, E. Die Eisenzeit Finnlands. Helsinki, 1979, p. 742; Selirand, Eestlaste matmiskombed…, Table XXXVIII:3-6.

The second variant is represented in the Novgorod museum by only one bracelet (22/21-20-1670 — Illus. 38:11). It is 2.7 cm wide. The flat surface is divided in two by a horizontal line. The decoration consists of lines of triangular stamping, and the end is decorated with vertical lines. This bracelet dates to the turn of the 11th-12th centuries. Similar bracelets are also known amongst antiquities of the 11th-mid 12th centuries from Estonia, Ladoga, the north-western area of the Novgorod lands, and burial mounds in Vladimir.[37]Selirand, Eestlaste matmiskombed…, Table XXXIX:2; Ljutsinskij mogilnik, Table IX:5, 7; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXI:29; Izvestija Arkheologicheskoj komissii, 1905(15), Illus. 298, 352.

Illustration 40: Ornament on Flat Bracelets, 12th-13th centuries

Image 1 of 1

(1) 16-21-1172; (2) 17-23-dig XV-XVI; (3) 12-18-1224; (4) 14-22-775; (5) Mikh17-27-10; (6) Ljud16-10-6; (7) 10-17-1352; (8) 14/13-1131; (9) Ljud19-15-36; (10) 15-20-1237; (11) 16/15-21-199; (12) Il16-21-43; (13) 15/14-22-1461; (14) 13-20-1326; (15) 14/13-21-1323; (16) 14-17-1834; (17) 16/15-21-2191; (18) Il16-21-328

Illustration 43, Item 7. Knotted bracelets. Found in Novgorod only twice. A narrow (0.4 cm wide), bronze plate bracelet with ends knotted on both sides was found in a layer from the 970s (27-31-270). It was made from forged, unornamented plate, and is of an equal width throughout its entire length. A second bracelet (18-24-1858 – Illus. 43:7) has a slightly wider middle (1 cm) and tapers toward the ends, which are knotted on both sites. The central section is decorated with zigzags and pinpoints. This bracelet was found in a layer from the 1160s-1170s. Narrow, knotted bracelets have also been found amongst burial mounds from southern Ladoga, the Smolensk and Moscow regions, and also in Gotland, where they date to the 10th century.[38]Levashova, Braslety, p. 233.

Illustration 42, Item 23. Narrow plate bracelets with open ends. These were made from forged thin plate, 0.4-0.5 cm wide, and have a single width throughout the length of the bracelet. Their ends may be cut straight across or rounded. The surface is typically smooth and undecorated. One exception is a bracelet decorated with two rows of lines made by a triangular stamp (15/14-17-859 — Illus. 42-23). These bracelets were in widespread use from the early 11th century until the 1230’s. In all, 11 of these have been found (25-29-1163A; 25/24-29-2171; 22-25-1267; 20-28-728; 19-18-526; 19-23-307 — Illus. 42:5; 18/17-18-1764; 17-19-1037; 15/14-13-985; 15/14-19-313; 15/14-17-859). They have also been found in burial mounds from the Novgorod region. A.A. Spitsyn dates them to the 13th-14th centuries.[39]Materialy po arkheologii rossii. 1903 (29), Table XXV:4.

Illustration 42, Item 23. Narrow plate bracelets with open ends. These were made from forged thin plate, 0.4-0.5 cm wide, and have a single width throughout the length of the bracelet. Their ends may be cut straight across or rounded. The surface is typically smooth and undecorated. One exception is a bracelet decorated with two rows of lines made by a triangular stamp (15/14-17-859 — Illus. 42:23). These bracelets were in widespread use from the early 11th century until the 1230’s. In all, 11 of these have been found (25-29-1163A; 25/24-29-2171; 22-25-1267; 20-28-728; 19-18-526; 19-23-307; 18/17-18-1764; 17-19-1037; 15/14-13-985; 15/14-19-313; 15/14-17-859). They have also been found in burial mounds from the Novgorod region. A.A. Spitsyn dates them to the 13th-14th centuries.[40]Materialy po arkheologii rossii. 1903 (29), Table XXV:4.

Illustration 42, Items 19-22. Animal-headed bracelets. These have ends in the form of stylized animal heads, most commonly the face of a dragon. In cross-section, these are either an elongated rectangle, triangular, or a complex oval shape. The earliest example of this type of bracelet was found in Novgorod in a layer from the 1070s-1090s (22-31-1432 — Illus. 42:20). A second bracelet with a diamond pattern was found in a layer from the 1160s-1190s (18/17-20-1640 — Illus. 42:21). A third bracelet, with slanted crosses drawn on the animal heads, is also dated to the same time period (Il18-22-253 — Illus. 42:22). Finally, a fourth bracelet decorated with concentric diamond patterns, dates to the 1260s-1280s (13-17-1513 — Illus. 42:19).

Animal headed bracelets are a decoration that was characteristic of the Baltic tribes. In the 10th century, they spread from the Baltic region into areas settled by the Slavs and Finns. Bracelets with dragon faces are found in burial mounds in Belarus, southern Ladoga, the Izhora plateau, Vladimir, outside Moscow, Smolensk, Kaluga, and others, where they date from the early 11th – early 12th centuries.[41]“Ljutsinskij mogil’nik,” Illus. 32, 33; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1896 (20), Table IV:13; Izvestija arkheologicheskoj komissii, 1905 (15), Illus. 284; Shmidt, E.A. “Kurgany XI-XIII vv. u d. Kharlapovo v Smolenskom Podneprov’e.” Materialy po izucheniju Smolenskoj oblasti. Smolensk, 1957, Illus. 37:7.

All of the Novgorod animal-headed bracelets were made from brass (group IV) or multi-component alloys (group V).

Illustration 41: Ornament on Flat Bracelets, 13th-14th centuries

Image 1 of 1

(1) 9/8-14-1269; (2) 9-11-963; (3) 10/9-10-1899; (4) 11-15-1508; (5) 8-16-123; (6) 9-8-526; (7) Il21-308; (8) 10/9-12-900; (9) 9-11-963; (10) 7/6-12-89; (11) 9/8-3-1731; (12) 7-12-278; (13) without provenance

Illustration 37, Items 2, 5, 8; Illustration 38, Item 6; Illustration 41, Item 4; Illustration 42, Items 2, 3, 5, 6-18; Illustration 43, Item 14. Oval-ended bracelets. These have a plate body and oval or round ends which are separated by a constriction from the rest of the bracelet. A. V. Artsikhovskij has noted that “the range of this type is enormous: from Hungary to Kostroma and Perm’, but it appears that they are not the predominant bracelet in any region.”[42]Artsikhovskij, Kurgany vjatichej, p. 22.

The oldest example of oval-ended bracelets in Novgorod seems to be a fragment found in a layer from the 1020s-1050s (24-28-21 — Illus. 38:6). This is an oval end of a bracelet, made of billon and decorated with triangles of false grain (?) along the end and around the edge of the blue glass insert located in the center. This fragment is relatively large for typical bracelets, and is conditionally assigned to this group of oval-ended bracelets. No similar bracelets have been discovered.

The remaining bracelets of this type (21 in total) were distributed in layers dating from the 1130s to the end of the 13th century. There are several variants of the oval-ended bracelets. The first contains three bracelets with complex floral patterns in the form of a winding vine on the body, and curved ends. They are relatively clearly dated in Novgorod: all three were found in layers from the 1130s-1180s (19-23-307 — Illus. 42:6; 19/18-28-1336 — Illus. 42:8; Ljud15-56 — Illus. 42:9). Analogous bracelets have been found in burial mounds near Vladimir.[43]Izvestija arkheologicheskoj komissii. 1905 (15), Illus. 271.

Sixteen bracelets with oval ends and variously decorated bodies belong to the second variant (Il20-25-131 — Illus. 42:18; 17-18-972 — Illus. 42:16; 16-22-2119 — Illus. 43:14; 16/15-21-257 — Illus. 37:5, Illus. 42:14; 16/15-16-1072 — Illus. 42:10; 15-16-1990 — Illus. 42:7; 15-19-1519 — Illus. 42:15; 14-12-702 — Illus. 42:5; 14-21-760 — Illus. 37:2; 14-20-1136 — Illus. 42:13; 14/13-15-1876 — Illus. 42:12; 14-18-297 — Illus. 42:17; 13-11-489 — Illus. 37:8; 12-7-1737 — Illus. 42:11 ; 12/11-17-31; 11-16-158 — Illus. 42:3). The decoration on bracelets of type are most frequently embossed, in the form of a cord running along the edges or down the center of the body, or sometimes in the form of a net or plant shoots. Bracelets with ornament similar to illustration 42:16 and illustration 43:14 have been found in digs of burial mounds from the Kaluga region, as well as from Serensk and Estonia.[44]Nikol’skaja, T.N. “K istorii drevnerusskogo goroda Serenska.” Kratkie soobschenija Instituta arkheologii Akademii nauk SSSR. 1968 (113), Illus. 37:13. Bracelets with ornament similar to illustration 37:8 are known from excavations of burial mounds in Kostroma.[45]Anuchin, D.N. “O kul’ture kostromskikh kurganov.” Materialy po arkheologii vostochnykh gubernij Rossii. 1899, Vol. III, Table I:18. Bracelets with floral patterns similar to illustration 42:3,5 have been found in burial mounds in the Novgorod region, in Serensk, in Jaropolch Zalesskij, and in the Smolensk region.[46]Artsikhovskij, A.V. “Raskopki 1930 g. v Novgorodskoj zemle.” Sovetskaja arkheologija. 1936 (I), p. 192, Illus. 2; Nikol’skaja, “K istorii drevnerusskogo…,” Illus. 35:4; Sedova, M.V. Jaropolch Zalesskij. Moscow, 1978, Table 7:23; Sedov, V.V. “Sel’skie poselenija tsentral’nykh rajonov Smolenskoj zemli.” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR. 1960 (92), Illus. 60:2. Bracelet 42:6 is very similar in decoration to ones from Serensk and Jaropolch.[47]Nikol’skaja, “K istorii drevnerusskogo…,” Illus 37-13; Sedova, Jaropolch Zalesskij, Table 7:22.

Two bracelets with lightly drawn and cut ends belong to the third variant. One of these (19/18-21-1623 — Illus. 42:2) is decorated with a row of diamonds, each containing a cross. This bracelet was found in a layer from the 1130s-1170s. The other bracelet (11-15-1508 — Illus. 41:4) is covered in zig-zag waves, divided by a horizontal line in the middle. This bracelet dates to the late 13th century – 1310s.

The majority of the described oval-ended bracelets were made by casting in a one-sided stone mold. The exception are only two bracelets: one (Illus. 42:13) was cut from a thin sheet of metal and engraved, and the other (Illus. 42:5) was cast using lost wax.[48]Ryndina, Tekhnologija proizvodstva…, p. 234. The material for these bracelets was primarily tin-lead bronze and alloys of tin or lead (group VIII).

Illustration 42: Ornament on 12th-13th century bracelets

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(1) 15-20-1220; (2) 19/18-21-1623; (3) 11-16-158; (4) 13/12-18-1209; (5) 14-12-702; (6) 19-23-307; (7) 15-16-1990; (8) 19/18-28-1336; (9) Ljud15-56; (10) 16/15-16-1072; (11) 12-7-1737; (12) 14/13-15-1876; (13) 14-20-1136; (14) 16/15-21-257; (15) 15-19-1519; (16) 17-18-972; (17) 14-18-297; (18) Il20-25-131; (19) 13-17-1513; (20) 22-31-1432; (21) 18/17-20-1640; (22) Il18-22-253; (23) 15/14-17-859

Illustration 40, Items 10-15; Illustration 41, Item 6. Bent-ended bracelets. These appear as flat plates, the ends of which have been bent outwards into cylindrical tubes. In Novgorod, 13 bracelets of this type have been found, distributed in layers from the late 11th century to the 1350s-1360s. Early examples (22-24-863 and 22/21-23-1889) were made from narrow, undecorated plate, 0.4-0.5 cm in width. They are markedly different from the remaining bracelets of this type, and appear almost to be drilled at the bent end. The greatest distribution of these bent-ended bracelets falls toward the late 12th-late 13th centuries, but they were in everyday use through the mid-14th century (16/15-21-199 — Illus. 40:11; 15-20-1237 — Illus. 40:10; 15/14-9-1756, 15/14-22-1461 — Illus. 40:13; Il16-21-43 — Illus. 40:12; 14-15-1902; 14/13-21-1323 — Illus. 40:15; 13-20-1326 — Illus. 40:14; Tr13-1; 9-8-526 –Illus. 41:6; Mikh8-16-27). A large number of these bracelets were made from thin, forged plate, and the decoration was created using two- or three-toothed wheels and punches. One exception is the bracelet shown in Illus. 40:11. It was cast, with the metal poured out onto a horizontal surface, and the decoration was created once the metal had cooled, using toothed wheels.[49]ibid. The material for these bracelets was pure copper, tin bronze (group II), and less freqently, brass (group IV).

Bent-ended bracelets are found rarely in burial mounds from the Novgorod lands, typically in later burials from the 13th-14th centuries.[50]Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXV:19; 1896 (20), Table IV:9, 14. In general, they were not as widely worn in northern regions as they were in central Russia. A.V. Artsikhovskij considered them to be a typical decoration of the Vjatichi, in whose burial mounds they have been found for burials from the 11th-14th centuries.[51]Artsikhovskij, Kurgany vjatichej, p. 21. However, they are found occasionally outside of the Vjatichi territory — for example, in the Smolensk region and in burial mounds near Kostroma. For this reason, V.V. Sedov does not consider it possible to accept these as a ethnologically-defining element of Vjatichi decoration.[52]Sedov, Sel’skie poselenija…, pp. 114, 115.

Illustration 37, Item 13; Illustration 43, Items 3, 4, 10. Bracelets with a convex or concave bulge in the middle. In the Novgorod collection, there are 10 such bracelets. They were distributed in layers from the 1270s to the mid-14th century (Tikhv22-27 — Illus. 43:10; K14/13-24-59; K14/13-24-48; K14/13-24-36; 14-16-1041 — Illus. 43:4; Tikhv13-40 — Illus. 37:13; 13-17-325; 12-12-1778; 10-625; 9-19-765). These bracelets were made from thin sheets of golden bronze and were shaped on a soft anvil with the assistance of a metal bar which was round in cross-section. A section of plate was placed on the bar and was formed by hammer blows; the decoration was then embossed onto the heated plate.[53]Ryndina, Tekhnologija proizvodstva…, p. 234. They were made from tin-bronze (group III) and brass (group IV). The majority of these bracelets were undecorated, but one (Illus. 43:4) is decorated on the front with a pair of lines of stamped dots, and on the reverse with S-shaped and zigzag designs. Similar bracelets with convex centers as part of the body have been found in materials from burial mounds in the Novgorod lands. A.A. Spitsyn dates them to the 13th-14th centuries.[54]Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1896 (20), Table III:3, 11; 1903 (29), Table XXV:22.

Illustration 37, Item 17; Illustration 40, Item 9; Illustration 43, Item 1. Bracelets with a wide center and tapering ends, ending in a hook. In all, three such bracelets have been found: two (Ljud19-15-36 — Illus. 40:9; 16-18-862 — Illus. 43:1) in layers from the second half of the 12th century, and one (9-11-960 — Illus. 37:17) in layers from the 1340s-1360s. They were cast from tin-bronze. The decoration consists of slashes, stamped dotted lines, and zigzags with a dot in the middle. No analogous bracelets have been found amongst burial mound antiquities. It is possible that two of the described bracelets (Illus. 37:17 and 43:1) were made from the ends of torcs, either braided or twisted, with flat shields, a hook and a loop on one end. Such torcs in Novgorod burial mounds date to the 12th-13th centuries.[55]Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXIII:13, 14. The bracelet shown in Illus. 40:9 may belong to the knotted bracelet group. In any event, it is quite similar to a knotted bracelet (Illus. 43:8), which also dates to the second half of the 12th century; however, its ends, which are round in cross-section, are bent into a hook, rather than a knot.

Illustration 37, Items 14, 16, 18; Illustration 43, Item 2. Bracelets made from thick (0.4-0.5 cm) tin-lead plate with somewhat tapering ends. These are dated to a quite narrow time span: five bracelets were found in layers from the very end of the 12th century – mid 13th century (16-23-dig I — Illus. 43:2; 16/15-18-1051; 14-16-890 — Illus. 37:16; 14-13-973; 14-16-1601), one (9-16-2155) in a layer from the 1340s-1360s. With the exception of the bracelet shown in Illus. 43:2, they were not decorated.

We can consider as a variant of this type those bracelets which were also made from thick tin-lead plate but decorated with a number of soldered rings, into which rings of a larger diameter have been threaded. Four such bracelets have been found. We are only able to date three of these (12-18-233 — Illus. 37:14; 12-13-dig XXX — Illus. 37:18; 11/10-12-951), as one was found outside of clear stratigraphy. Consequently, this type of bracelet is dated to the late 12th century through the first third of the 13th century. Bracelets with small rings for hanging noisy pendants are characteristic in Finno-Ugric antiquities. Analogous bracelets have also been found in Novgorod burial mounds.[56]Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXV:18, 19.

Illustration 43: Bracelets

Image 1 of 1

(1) 16-18-862; (2) 16-23-dig I; (3) K24-48; (4) 14-16-1041; (5) 8/7-6-2013; (6) Level 14 of Kozmodem'janskaja street; (7) 18-24-1858; (8, 9, 12, 15, 16) without provenance, Novgorod Museum collection; (10) Tikhv22-27; (11) 13/12-15-1834; (13) 15/14-23-1399; (14) 16-22-2119; (17) 21-23-1975

Illustration 43, Item 6. Two solid, cast plate bracelets, decorated with 3 embossed, longitudinal stripes forming squares, date to the 1230s-1260s (14-15-1900; level 14 of Kozmodem’janskaja street — Illus. 43:6). The first was made from tin-lead bronze; the second from an alloy of tin and lead.

Illustration 38, Item 13. Amongst the other plate bracelets, we should note a wide-centered bracelet with tapering, drawn ends dating to the 1080s-1090s (Mikh22-34-33 — Illus. 38:13).

Illustration 43, Item 5. An embossed bracelet of golden bronze (group I), with a flared end, decorated with oblique lines (8/7-6-2013 — Illus. 43:5), dating to the 1360s-1360s.

The ornamentation of plate bracelets. Over the course of the five centuries to which the plate bracelets belong, their decoration underwent significant changes. The most common pattern on plate bracelets, as we as on solid cast bracelets, in the 10th-11th centuries was a geometric braid with dots inside diamonds that were formed by the weave. A characteristic feature was the oblique cross (Illus. 38:1, 5, 7-10). Decoration in the form of twisting snakes (Illus. 38:4) was borrowed from Scandinavia. Lines of triangular stamps (Illus. 38:11, 13, 14) were also widely used.

In the 12th century, these braids were replaced by geometric designs, consisting of diamonds, oblique latticework, and zigzags with dots in the center. Decoration of lines of triangular stamps was also still used (Illus. 39). Every element of such decoration was tied to pagan symbolism. As a result, geometric designs in the form of diamonds with dots in the center, oblique crosses, zigzags and other motifs became widely used on works by village artisans, and was also preserved, as we have seen, in everyday city life. This design was considered to be a sort of amulet, and the decoration on bracelets had not only an aesthetic, but also a protective character.[57]Rybakov, B.A. “Prikladnoe iskusstvo i skul’ptura.” Istorija kul’tury drevnej Rusi. Moscow, 1951, vol. II, pp. 402-404, Illus. 195.

In the 12th-13th centuries, along with the geometric designs, we also see the appearance of floral decoration in the form of twisting vines (Illus. 40:15, Illus. 42:3-9).

Illustration 44: Cuff Bracelets

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(1) 16-13-654; (2) Tr10-44; (3) 16-20-294; (4) 16-17-961; (5) 13/12-12-1922; (6) 16-16-1933; (7) 17-19-1080; (8) Rjurikovo town, lifting material; (9) Tr10-98; (10) Tr10-98 and Tr, southern trench

Folding Bracelets

Of particular interest are folding bracelets, consisting typically of two wide panels, united by an articulated hinge. Folding bracelets appeared in the 12th century as a typical urban decoration. Numerous examples of silver folding bracelets decorated with niello have been found in medieval Russian treasure troves of the pre-Mongol era. These were expensive, very time-consuming works of art belonging to the urban nobility. In imitation of such bracelets, already by the mid 12th century, artisans began to produce items which exactly copied these folding bracelets in form and decoration, but using a much simpler technique – casting.

Until recently, we knew only of the stone molds in which imitations of nielloed folding bracelets were cast. The bracelets themselves, with few exceptions[58]Korzukhina, G.F. “Kievskie juveliry nakanune mongol’skogo zavoevanija.” Sovietskaja arkheologija. 1950 (XIV), p. 222, Illus. 1:7.[59]jeb: See my translation of this article into English here: https://rezansky.com/kievan-jewelers-on-the-eve-of-the-mongol-conquest/, remained unknown. In Novgorod, 19 folding bracelets were found in a previously undisturbed cultural layer from the mid 12th century, judging from the stratigraphy of the Nerevskij dig, and extending until the 14th century. They were all case: 10 from tin-lead alloy, 7 from billon, and 2 from bronze.

Illustration 44, Item 7. The earliest cuff bracelet was found in a layer from the 1170s (17-19-1080 — Illus. 44:7). The face of this is covered with an embossed pattern depicting two birds with their heads turned toward each other, seated near a tree of life. The tree is stylized in the form of a four-strand braid ending in vegetative curls. This complex floral ornamentation is quite reminiscent of the “carpet” carvings of Vladimir-Suzdal’ architecture.[60]Vagner, G.K. Dekorativnoe iskusstvo v arkhitekture Rusi X-XIII vv. Moscow, 1964, Table 26. A nielloed silver bracelet with a similar composition was found in one of the treasure finds in Vladimir.[61]Guschin, A.S. Pamjatniki khudozhestvennogo remesla drevnej Rusi X-XIII vv. Leningrad, 1936, Table XX:4.

Illustration 44, Item 6. The same composition of two birds with turned heads is also depicted on a second Novgorod bracelet (16-16-1993 — Illus. 44:6). It was made from an alloy of tin with lead. The design is more sketchlike and simple than on the previous bracelet. We find a more similar analogy to this item in a silver bracelet depicting two birds found in Kiev.[62]Rybakov, B.A. Remeslo drevnej Rusi. Moscow, 1948, Illus. 59.

Illustration 44, Item 9. Of particular interest are two panels of the same bracelet from the late 12th century (Tr10-98). On them are found are the profile figures of fantastic creatures with human heads, wearing crowns and facing each other. Their bodies are depicted in the form of a complex braid, ending in a knot. These depictions are similar in style to Novgorod illuminations of the 12th-13th centuries; for example, a miniature with an animalistic pattern and braid from a manuscript of a musical notation of a Kontakion from the 12th century.[63]Guschin, Pamjatniki khudozhestvennogo remesla…, Illus. 10. However, two stone casting molds from Kiev[64]Karger, M.K. Drevnij Kiev. Moscow, 1958, Vol. I, Table 11. are even more similar to the Novgorod bracelet in terms of subject and manner of depiction. On one of them, we see carved figures of two sirens near a tree of life, depicted as a complex braided knot; the other has the same composition, but instead of sirens, there are dog-like dragons. The Kiev molds are from the workshop of “Makosim,” who died and was interred under the Church of the Tithes in 1240. The stylistic similarity between the aforementioned Novgorod bracelet and the Kievan molds allows us to propose that there were strong contacts between the artisans of Kiev and Novgorod. Similar stone molds recently found in Serensk, one of which bears the signature, it appears, of the same Kievan jeweler “Makosim,”[65]Medyntseva, A.A. “O litejnykh formochkakh s nadpisjami Maksima.” Drevnjaja Rus’ i slavjane. Moscow, 1978, p. 378. further attest to these contacts, and to the rapid spread across all the territories of medieval Rus’ of artistic trends and technological skills from Kiev.

Illustration 44, Item 8. This bracelet has a rare subject, not having a direct analogy elsewhere. It was discovered by accident in Rurikovo near Novgorod. On it are the figures of two opposing animals, most likely a fallow deer and a predator of some kind.

Illustration 15, Items 6, 7, 9-11; Illustration 44, Items 1-5. A significant group of Novgorod cuffs is composed of bracelets with floral ornament. In a layer from the last 12th century, a section of a bracelet was found depicting two floral shoots (16-17-961 — Illus. 44:4). In the same layer, there also were found panels from two different cuffs with very similar designs in the form of heart-shaped tendrils with a palmette design in their centers (16-20-294 — Illus. 44:3; 16-13-654 — Illus. 44:1). In a layer from the second half of the 13th century, a fragment of a bracelet (13/12-12-1922 — Illus. 44:5) was found, decorated with two heart-shaped tendrils turned toward one another and separated by two triangles. The same time period also produced a bracelet decorated with S-shaped tendrils ending in floral shoots (Tr10-44 — Illus. 44:2). The pattern of this bracelet copies the image on the lower part of a nielloed silver cuff from the collection of the State Historical Museum.[66]Guschin, Pamjatniki khudozhestvennogo remesla…, p. 21. A similar pattern was found on an imitation tin bracelet from Grodno.[67]Voronin, N.N. “Drevnee Grodno.” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR. 1954 (41), p. 69, Illus. 32. An S-shaped pattern, but openwork, was used on a panel of another cuff-bracelet (H48). This openwork bracelet was created in imitation, it would appear, of bracelets such as the gold cuff from a 1822 treasure trove from Old Rjazan’.[68]Kondakov, N.P. Russkie klady. St. Petersburg, 1896, vol. 1, Table XIV:3. Two more openwork bracelets were found, one (K27-38 — Illus. 15:6) decorated with rows of arches facing each other, and the other (K25-25 — Illus. 15:10) woven.

Geometric designs have been found on 5 bracelets. Amongst these, of particular interest is a bracelet entirely make of billon found in a layer from the turn of the 12th-13th centuries (15/16-20-1272). It’s panels are covered in a pattern that imitates grain. The pattern consists of four lines of triangles, with their vertices facing one another, with the space between these rows filled with diamond notches. This bracelet is unique in its design. It has no analogy among items made with real grain, and it appears to have been created as a fantasy of a Novgorod jeweler.

From the early 13th century come three billon bracelets (15-19-249 — Illus. 15:7; 15-22-1135b — Illus. 15:11; Il12-13 — Illus. 15:9). A panel from the first of these is decorated with four semi-circles, placed around a hemi-sphere in the center (Illus. 15:7). The design is filled with fake grain and somewhat resembles the design of a lead imitation bracelet from Kiev.[69]Korzukhina, Kievskie juveliry…, p. 223, illus 1-7. A panel from the second also imitates silver-plated “rope” and a mound of grain (Illus. 15:11). A third bracelet is decorated along with side with an oblique lattice-work, and in the center with diamond notches (Illus. 15:9).

A cast, billon bracelet with an openwork knotwork design (K25-25 — Illus. 15:10) dates to the 1260s.

Two fragments of a tin-lead cuff-bracelet were found in layers from the early 14th century (8-7-516; Tr6-112). One of these is completely undecorated; the other is covered in an inconspicuous pattern. It would seem that by the 14th century, the tradition of luxuriously decorated cuff bracelets had already begun to wane.

Illustration 41, Items 2, 8-12. Plate bracelets with hinged locks. A peculiar variation of folding bracelets are those with hinged locks, consisting of vertical tubes into which a rod is inserted. The oldest example of this type, made from tin-lead alloy, was found in a layer from the early 13th century (Il21-308 — Illus. 41:7). On the end is depicted a lion’s head. Similar bracelets are known in monuments from the pre-Mongol period, in Chernihiv, Ljubech, Old Rjazan’, Serensk, and Novogrudok.[70]Rybakov, B.A. “Drevnosti Chernigova.” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR. 1949 (11), Illus. 24; Mongajt, A.L. “Staraja Rjazan’.” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR. 1955 (49), Illus. 137:1; Nikol’skaja, T.N. “Kuznetsy zhelezu, medi i serebru ot vjatich.” Slavjane i Rus’. Moscow, 1968, Illus. 2:7; Gurevich, F.D. “K istorii kul’turnykh svjazej drevnerusskikh gorodov Poneman’ja s Kievskoj zemlej.” Kul’tura srednevekovoj Rusi. Leningrad, 1974, p. 23-3. Four bracelets were found in layers from the 14th century (10/9-12-900 — Illus. 41:8; 9-11-963 — Illus. 41:2, Illus. 41:9; 9/8-3-1731 — Illus. 41:11; 7/6-12-89 — Illus. 41:10). They were all made from golden bronze (multi-component alloys, group V). One was cast in a double-sided stone mold; the others were cut from thin, forged plate. A bracelet from the beginning of the 14th century (10/9-12-900 — Illus. 41:8) is decorated with longitudinal grooves applied using a wheel with a flattened edge.[71]Ryndina, Tekhnologija proizvodstva…, p. 235. It is similar to a 15th century silver bracelet found in a trove in the Rjazan’ region.[72]Zubkov, V.I. “Gaverdovskij klad XV v.” Kratkie oobschenija Instituta istorii material’noj kul’tury Akademii nauk SSSR. 1951 (XII), illus 52-1.

A 1 cm wide bracelet, consisting of 2 fragments (9-11-963 — Illus. 41:2, Illus. 41:9), was found in a layer from the 1340s-1360s. On one end of the bracelet is depicted the head of a lion; on the other is a four-petaled flower.

Bracelets depicting lions’ heads are known in antiquities from the 14th and early 15th centuries from the extensive territory of the Volga region in monuments from the Golden Horde (for example, the town of Vodjanskoe,[73]Fedorov-Davydov, G.A. “Braslet s nadpis’ju s Selitrennogo gorodischa.” Sovietskaja arkheologija. 1978 (2), p. 287, Illus. 3.or the Karashamskij trove[74]Kalinin, N.F., Khalikov, A.Kh. Itogi arkheologicheskikh rabot za 1945-1952 gg. Kazan’, 1954, pp. 119, 120, Illus. 38.. A stone mold for creating similar bracelets was found in the town of Tsarevskoe (the Hermitage, inventory no. KSIV-101).

To the monuments of the Golden Horde belong two bracelets depicting on one end a four-petaled flower with a dot on each petal (7/6-12-89 — Illus. 41:10), and on the other, two petals from the same flower with a wide, shaded line in the middle of the body and two narrower ones on the sides, and a composition of five dots at the end of the bracelet (9/8-3-1731 — Illus. 41:11). This item dates to mid-late 14th century.

A billon bracelet depicting two lion heads on the ends, and with two lion heads in the center facing one another and separated by two diamonds, dates to the 1380s-1390s (7-12-278 — Illus. 41:12). Similar plate bracelets are widely distributed in the antiquities from Golden Horde cities, but their form and ornament were borrowed by the Mongols from Central Asia and, in turn, from prototypes from Asia Minor and Iran.[75]Kramarovskij, M. “Bulgarskie braslety: genezis dekora i lokalizatsija.” Soobschenija Goudarstvennogo Ermitazha. 1978 (XLIII), pp. 46-50.

Illustration 41, Item 13. A billon plate bracelet found outside of dated layers most likely belongs to the same group of Golden Horde antiquities. Its ends are decorated with engraved semi-ovals and triangles, similar in manner to the depiction of pattern elements of lion heads and flower petals as on the bracelets described above.

Thus, it appears that Novgorod of the 14th century has a group of bracelets which were brought in from far Eastern regions, most likely from some centers of the Golden Horde.

Illustration 15: Various Decorations

Image 1 of 1

(1-3) Medallions from Barmy (10-660; K25-56; 6-5-578); (4) Bead (Torg21-4); (5, 8) Pendants (20-24-dig III; 8/7-8-907); (6, 7, 9-11) Bracelets (K27-38; 15-19-249; Il12-13; K25-25; 15-22-1135b)

References

1 Levashova, V.P. “Braslety.” Ocherki po istorii russkoj derevni X-XIII vv. Trudy GIM, issue 43. Moscow, 1967, p. 207.
2 Ryndina, N.V. “Tekhnologia proizvodstva Novgorodskikh juvelirov X-XV vv.” Materialy i issledovania po arkheologii SSSR. 1963 (117), p. 232.
3 jeb: See my translation of this article into English here: https://rezansky.com/2020/01/jewelry-production-technology-in-10th-15th-century-novgorod
4 jeb: If no illustration:item-number reference is given, as with all but one of the entries listed here, then the referenced item is not pictured in any of the illustrations.
5 jeb: See the introduction for a description of how to decipher these attribution numbers.
6 idem., p. 232.
7 Levashova, “Braslety,” p. 215.
8 Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 228.
9 Artsikhovskij, A.V. Kurgany vjatichej. Moscow, 1930, pp. 10, 138.
10 Konovalov, “Tsvetnye metally…,” pp. 130-131.
11 Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 228.
12 Levashova, “Braslety,” p. 220.
13 jeb: See the introduction for more information on alloys used in Novgorod finds.
14 Konovalov, “Tsvetnye metally…,” pp. 126-129.
15 Spitsyn, A.A. “Drevnosti basseijnov rek Oki i Kamy, vyp. 1.” Materialy po arkheologii Rossii. 1901 (25). Table XVII:8.
16 Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 230.
17 Artsikhovskij, Kurgany vjatichej, pp. 137-138.
18 Khlebnikova, T.A. “Gorodische Suvar.” Arkheologicheskie otkrytija 1975 g. Moscow, 1976, p. 205.
19 Ryndina, “Technologia proizvodstva…,” pp. 230-232.
20 Korzukhina, G.F. Russkie klady. Moscow-Leningrad, 1954, Table XXXI:5 — trove 74 (1170s-1240).
21 jeb: A variety of archeological material related to the “chudo” (miracle) as a collective name for the Finnish tribes. See here for more info.
22 Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 232.
23 Du Chaillu. The Viking Age. Vol 1. London, 1889, p. 240, Table 508.
24 Ryndina, “Technologia proizvodstva…,” p. 230.
25 Korzukhina, Russkie klady, Table XIV:3.
26 Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” p. 230.
27 Levashova, Braslety, p. 229.
28 Lietuviu liaudies menas. Vilnius, 1958, p. 580; Bulychov, N.I. Zhurnal raskopok po chasti vodorazdelov verkhnikh pritokov Volgi i Dnepra. Moscow, 1899, Table XVIII:10.
29 Ryndina, “Tekhnologia proizvodstva…,” pp. 232-233.
30 Artsikhovskij, Kurgany vjatichej, pp. 20-21.
31 Korzukhina, Russkie klady, Table XIII:2; Table XIV:1.
32 Levashova, Braslety, p. 228, Illus. 29:9.
33 Levashova, Braslety, p. 242; Selirand, J. Eestlaste matmiskombed varafeodaalasete suhete tärkamise perioodil. Tallin, 1974, Table XXXIX:3, 5, 7, 8; Shnjure, E.D., Zejda, T.Ja. Nukshinskij mogil’nik. Riga, 1957, Table V:3, Table VI:4; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1896 (20), Table IV:18, Table XIII:16, 26, 28; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXII:19.
34 V.P. Levashova calls these bracelets “narrow-ended” (Levashova, Braslety, p. 233).
35 Materialy po arkheologii Rossii. 1896 (20), Table XIII:29, 32; 1903 (29), Table XXV:23.
36 Levashova, Braslety, p. 236; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1896(20), Table III:2; 1903(29), Table XXII:29; “Ljutsinskij mogil’nik. Materialy po arkheologii Rossii. 1893 (14), Table IX:5, 7, 8; Izvestija Arkheologicheskoj komissii, 1905 (15), Illus. 294, 298; Kivikoski, E. Die Eisenzeit Finnlands. Helsinki, 1979, p. 742; Selirand, Eestlaste matmiskombed…, Table XXXVIII:3-6.
37 Selirand, Eestlaste matmiskombed…, Table XXXIX:2; Ljutsinskij mogilnik, Table IX:5, 7; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXI:29; Izvestija Arkheologicheskoj komissii, 1905(15), Illus. 298, 352.
38 Levashova, Braslety, p. 233.
39 Materialy po arkheologii rossii. 1903 (29), Table XXV:4.
40 Materialy po arkheologii rossii. 1903 (29), Table XXV:4.
41 “Ljutsinskij mogil’nik,” Illus. 32, 33; Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1896 (20), Table IV:13; Izvestija arkheologicheskoj komissii, 1905 (15), Illus. 284; Shmidt, E.A. “Kurgany XI-XIII vv. u d. Kharlapovo v Smolenskom Podneprov’e.” Materialy po izucheniju Smolenskoj oblasti. Smolensk, 1957, Illus. 37:7.
42 Artsikhovskij, Kurgany vjatichej, p. 22.
43 Izvestija arkheologicheskoj komissii. 1905 (15), Illus. 271.
44 Nikol’skaja, T.N. “K istorii drevnerusskogo goroda Serenska.” Kratkie soobschenija Instituta arkheologii Akademii nauk SSSR. 1968 (113), Illus. 37:13.
45 Anuchin, D.N. “O kul’ture kostromskikh kurganov.” Materialy po arkheologii vostochnykh gubernij Rossii. 1899, Vol. III, Table I:18.
46 Artsikhovskij, A.V. “Raskopki 1930 g. v Novgorodskoj zemle.” Sovetskaja arkheologija. 1936 (I), p. 192, Illus. 2; Nikol’skaja, “K istorii drevnerusskogo…,” Illus. 35:4; Sedova, M.V. Jaropolch Zalesskij. Moscow, 1978, Table 7:23; Sedov, V.V. “Sel’skie poselenija tsentral’nykh rajonov Smolenskoj zemli.” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR. 1960 (92), Illus. 60:2.
47 Nikol’skaja, “K istorii drevnerusskogo…,” Illus 37-13; Sedova, Jaropolch Zalesskij, Table 7:22.
48 Ryndina, Tekhnologija proizvodstva…, p. 234.
49 ibid.
50 Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXV:19; 1896 (20), Table IV:9, 14.
51 Artsikhovskij, Kurgany vjatichej, p. 21.
52 Sedov, Sel’skie poselenija…, pp. 114, 115.
53 Ryndina, Tekhnologija proizvodstva…, p. 234.
54 Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1896 (20), Table III:3, 11; 1903 (29), Table XXV:22.
55 Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXIII:13, 14.
56 Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 1903 (29), Table XXV:18, 19.
57 Rybakov, B.A. “Prikladnoe iskusstvo i skul’ptura.” Istorija kul’tury drevnej Rusi. Moscow, 1951, vol. II, pp. 402-404, Illus. 195.
58 Korzukhina, G.F. “Kievskie juveliry nakanune mongol’skogo zavoevanija.” Sovietskaja arkheologija. 1950 (XIV), p. 222, Illus. 1:7.
59 jeb: See my translation of this article into English here: https://rezansky.com/kievan-jewelers-on-the-eve-of-the-mongol-conquest/
60 Vagner, G.K. Dekorativnoe iskusstvo v arkhitekture Rusi X-XIII vv. Moscow, 1964, Table 26.
61 Guschin, A.S. Pamjatniki khudozhestvennogo remesla drevnej Rusi X-XIII vv. Leningrad, 1936, Table XX:4.
62 Rybakov, B.A. Remeslo drevnej Rusi. Moscow, 1948, Illus. 59.
63 Guschin, Pamjatniki khudozhestvennogo remesla…, Illus. 10.
64 Karger, M.K. Drevnij Kiev. Moscow, 1958, Vol. I, Table 11.
65 Medyntseva, A.A. “O litejnykh formochkakh s nadpisjami Maksima.” Drevnjaja Rus’ i slavjane. Moscow, 1978, p. 378.
66 Guschin, Pamjatniki khudozhestvennogo remesla…, p. 21.
67 Voronin, N.N. “Drevnee Grodno.” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR. 1954 (41), p. 69, Illus. 32.
68 Kondakov, N.P. Russkie klady. St. Petersburg, 1896, vol. 1, Table XIV:3.
69 Korzukhina, Kievskie juveliry…, p. 223, illus 1-7.
70 Rybakov, B.A. “Drevnosti Chernigova.” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR. 1949 (11), Illus. 24; Mongajt, A.L. “Staraja Rjazan’.” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR. 1955 (49), Illus. 137:1; Nikol’skaja, T.N. “Kuznetsy zhelezu, medi i serebru ot vjatich.” Slavjane i Rus’. Moscow, 1968, Illus. 2:7; Gurevich, F.D. “K istorii kul’turnykh svjazej drevnerusskikh gorodov Poneman’ja s Kievskoj zemlej.” Kul’tura srednevekovoj Rusi. Leningrad, 1974, p. 23-3.
71 Ryndina, Tekhnologija proizvodstva…, p. 235.
72 Zubkov, V.I. “Gaverdovskij klad XV v.” Kratkie oobschenija Instituta istorii material’noj kul’tury Akademii nauk SSSR. 1951 (XII), illus 52-1.
73 Fedorov-Davydov, G.A. “Braslet s nadpis’ju s Selitrennogo gorodischa.” Sovietskaja arkheologija. 1978 (2), p. 287, Illus. 3.
74 Kalinin, N.F., Khalikov, A.Kh. Itogi arkheologicheskikh rabot za 1945-1952 gg. Kazan’, 1954, pp. 119, 120, Illus. 38.
75 Kramarovskij, M. “Bulgarskie braslety: genezis dekora i lokalizatsija.” Soobschenija Goudarstvennogo Ermitazha. 1978 (XLIII), pp. 46-50.

3 Replies to “Jewelry Of Medieval Novgorod (10th-15th centuries): Bracelets”

  1. Thank you so much for translating all this wonderful information! I’ve been looking into making some of my own jewelry for my Russian persona, so this blog has been a godsend, and this post specifically has a lot of the information I’ve been looking for. Out of curiosity, are you planning on translating any of the information about head jewelry?

    1. I’m glad to hear you’re finding this work of use! The rest of the book is on my to do list.

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